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Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply. study adopted this method due to its simplicity and ease of computation as follows: equal to the sum of the value of purchased food (V, the household or own production consumed (C, …………………………………………...........…………………....(1), size on the basis of age, sex and activity levels into adult equivalent scale calculated by, determining food insecurity threshold (line). The study concluded that, although women play crucial roles in addressing food insecurity within their households, gender-specific obstacles typically impede their abilities to cope with climate-induced food insecurity. The results revealed that the level of household income diversification was low, and the majority of households were food insecure. The purpose of this study is to The regression model result revealed that several factors determine the propensity of smallholder farmers’ participation to non-farm activities. 3.2 Rural livelihoods diversification. Download Full PDF Package. highest surplus and least shortfall indices of 0.75 and 0.20 majority of the respondents diversied their income into, ethic groups in the area. ISSN 1336-9261, XXI (Number 2, 2018): 113-128 doi: 10.15414/raae.2018.21.02.113-128 RAAE REGULAR ARTICLE GENDER PERSPECTIVES OF THE DETERMINANTS OF CLIMATE ADAPTATION: THE CASE OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION IN NORTHERN GHANA William ADZAWLA 1*, Abou KANE 2 Address: 1 University of Cheikh Anta Diop, West African Science … The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly and 42% of individuals in this category are food secure and View Livelihood_Diversification_and_Income_Le.pdf from DEVELOPMEN 400 at University of Nairobi. 2001a, b; Ellis 1998, 2000, 2005; Carswell 2002).Many of these studies have focused on drivers and trends in income diversification among rural households, including a focus on constraints and incentives in rural Africa (Barrett et al. in rural Nigeria. The study used primary data, which was obtained with the strategies for livelihood diversification therefore tend to focus on eliciting increased access to and use of modern inputs and technologies, improving markets and agribusiness opportunities, and developing skills and support for individuals and groups to engage in non-agricultural self-employment or wage employment. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. The distribution of livelihood activities clearly Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58), among others. DOI: 10.1080/21665095.2017.141341, Strategic and Policies for Food Security and Economic, Assessment of Food Security Situation among, Agricultural Economics Research Policy and Practice in Southern, African Economic Research Consortium AERC RP 122, Food Poverty and Livelihoods Issues in Rural, African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. To achieve this, policy makers and other stakeholders need to integrate non-farm livelihood strategies into rural farming economies. Furthermore, the result shows that engagement in livelihood for urban households to improve their income and reduce food insecurity. 2 (2018): 90-98. doi: 10.12691/jfs-6-2-6. The more affluent often take advantage of shocks and crises, given their flexible assets and power status. Stimulating poor households to follow market-oriented farm and non-farm activities by improving access to education, vocational training, rural credit, and rural infrastructures is momentous for reducing poverty in the rural areas of central Nepal. Port Harcourt Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 8. This study categorized households into five main livelihood strategy groups. income comes primarily from fish and rice production, domestic bird rearing and As far as strategies are concerned, Scoones (1998) and Ellis, (2000) considered agricultural intensification 1, livelihood diversification and migration as the three core livelihood strategies. An Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya. Articulated in its Seventh National Development Plan, the Government’s longer-term vision aims to encourage ... LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES • Diversification of income streams, hard work, and good business planning emerged as perceived contributions to a person’s success. Cite This Article: Jedidah Kandagor, and Dr. Kefa O. Nyandoro, “An Analysis of Livelihood Diversification to Food Security among Rural Households in Ndhiwa Sub County, Homa Bay County, Kenya.” Journal of Food Security, vol. This is possible through awareness and Logistic Econometric Model Results Cumulative Frequency Percent In order to examine the role of livelihood Percent On- farm 148 41.69 41.69 diversification strategies for rural household food security On farm + off farm 80 22.54 64.23 in the study area, this study used two different variables; Off-farm + Non-farm 76 21.41 85.63 these are livelihood diversification strategies … A, Undertaking diverse livelihood income generating activities is one of the key strategies often adopted to tackle the challenge of food insecurity by rural farmers. diversification has not yet benefitted the large majority of smallholders. ... Download PDF for offline viewing. The paper examines migration as a livelihood strategy adopted by the rural households to overcome poverty in Edo State. It was thereby concluded that income diversification increases household food security status while increase in number of dependent individuals reduces it. 24. The survey results also indicate that more than half of the respondents receive income from rice production (53 per cent), domestic bird rearing (78 per cent) and fish production (68 per cent). Livelihood diversification to business/enterprise strategies adopted by 16% of the households is the most remunerative strategy followed by commercial farming that includes 13% of … A cross-sectional survey research design has been employed to examine the factors which determine the participation of rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in non-farm activities using a mixed methods approach. diversication strategies is established. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. into the overall livelihood diversication strategies in order to achieve the overall goal. status so as to be better off. The logic outlined above is the basis for SLA and is typically represented as set out in Figure 2. Factors Influencing Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 76 . Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Expectedly, saving and family size are positively related to off-farm participation. This study utilized data obtained, This study examines the effects of livelihood activities on the households’ food security in the between livelihood assets and diversification strategies. Livelihood diversification strategies, incomes and soil management strategies: a case study from Kerio Valley, Kenya @article{Iiyama2008LivelihoodDS, title={Livelihood diversification strategies, incomes and soil management strategies: a case study from Kerio Valley, Kenya}, author={M. Iiyama and Patrick … (56%) of the farmers had land area of less than 2ha; 51% had acquired Qur’anic education = the quantity of ith food item purchased by jth household. Outcomes of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 92 Income Outcomes 92 Henceforth, the government should launch a full-fledged crop insurance program that can compensate farmers up to the actual damage amounts. of efforts geared towards addressing the problem. The results showed that food insecurity among farming households in south western Nigeria was influenced by agricultural production inputs, remittances received from external members of household, improved asset base and production capacity of the households. Eleven of the specified variables were found to have significant influence on food insecurity. It was found that social asset was highly influenced and depends upon income level of households as a majority (67.0%) of the poor people with a low income level had a low level of financial capital. =Limited dependent variable which expresses the depth of household food, = proportion of enterprise in household livelihood strategies. to food that was still problematic, the majority of households were not accumulating wealth assets such as livestock (see . The qualitative nature of the research allowed community members to … Food insecurity becomes severe in areas where households highly depend on undiversified livelihoods. The FG sense-making was recorded, and discourse analysis was conducted to develop thematic concept maps using NVivo software. strategies that help enhance livelihood (i.e. social protection/safety nets could be directed. In building their livelihoods and ensuring food security, rural households respond by engaging in a range of livelihood strategies, which could be agricultural and non-agricultural economic activities (Zurovec and Vedeld 2019). Primary data collected in 453 households from three villages of central Nepal are analyzed quantitatively within a sustainable livelihood framework. the socio-economic characteristics of respondents, identify their various livelihood activities, determine their food security status, identify the determinants of household food security of the respondents and lastly, identify the constraints to diversifying livelihood sources in the study area. Majority thirty-six percent were female. study, and preparation of the manuscript for publication. showed that farmers adopted five livelihood strategies of On average, about 52% of all households sampled participate in off-farm activities and off-farm income accounts for 30% of total household income. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. 2 LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES IN RURAL GHANA Diversification in the rural settings of Ghana is a dynamic adaptation strategy by which rural households manage risk and gain extra income to secure their livelihoods (Asfaw et al., 2015). Marshak . State, Nigeria. From the result, sixty-four percent, This study assesses the linkages between income diversification and household food security status using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18 items questionnaire core module. farming households. security index and logit regression model. Fishing, Livestock keeping and Off-farm (CFLO) had the is the predominant livelihood activity. Descriptive statistics, equipment and high cost of food items. livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa, and the situation regarding smallholders. diversification and the livelihood strategies of households in pastoral settlements in Isiolo County, Kenya Gargule Andrew Achiba Abstract Research in northern Kenya presents evidence that livestock herding remains the most important income activity for households in pastoral settlements, even though non-livestock income activities constitute a significant proportion of … This study estimates a food insecurity index and examines the factors that influence food insecurity among small farmers in Nigeria. Data were obtained from 384 randomly selected households in the Woleka sub-basin of Ethiopia. email: j.olayemi@mail.ui.edu.ng, diet in a household or country exists in two forms, namely, individuals while transitory food insecurity exists when there is a temporary, remains a very serious problem. Dzanku (2015) noted that the average transient livelihood … Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The findings A one Birr increase in saving will increases the probability of off-farm participation by 0.0003 and one member addition to the family size will increases the probability of off-farm participation by 0.033. of Agricultural Economics, Ibadan, Nigeria. Key Informant Interviews (Klls), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and Observations were also employed to triangulate and support the primary data which obtained from the sample household head interviews. A unique sequential mixed-methods research design was adopted for this study. processing) and the tertiary sector (services - trade) are quite favoured by women. This paper attempts to understand broadly the dynamics of rural livelihood diversification in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. influenced by age and education of household head, number of earning family head; and agro-ecological variation. empirically relating food poverty status to livelihood and income diversification in Jigawa The most common UNHCR livelihood interventions include: vocational training, agricultural interventions, and artisan livelihood opportunities. The decrease average … The logit In order to realise the objectives of the equivalent/day by 75%; but food insecure households fell short of same by 20%. Download PDF. But while the potential opportunities afforded by diversification … Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International, Mitigating Catastrophic Risks and Food Security Threats: Effects of Land Ownership in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, FOOD SECURITY AND INCOME DIVERSIFICATION NEXUS: USDA APPROACH, Determinants of Livelihood Diversification Under Environmental Change in Coastal Community of Bangladesh, Gender-Specific Livelihood Strategies for Coping with Climate Change-Induced Food Insecurity in Southeast Nigeria, Voice of farmers in the agriculture crisis in North-East Nigeria: Focus group insights from extension workers, Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: evidence from rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in northcentral Ethiopia ( Woleka sub-basin), Household Livelihood Strategies and Implication for Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Central Nepal, Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal, Rural Livelihood Diversification in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review, African Journal of Agricultural Research Factors influencing food insecurity among small farmers in Nigeria, Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification among Small-Scale Producers: The Case of Kamba District in Ethiopia, Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria, Food Poverty and Livelihoods Issues in Rural Nigeria, HOUSEHOLDS' FOOD DEMAND AND FOOD SECURITY STATUS IN NIGERIA, Non-Farm Activity, Household Expenditure, and Poverty Reduction in Rural Vietnam: 2002–2008, BINARY PROBIT ESTIMATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PESTICIDE ADOPTION FOR THE CONTROL OF YAM TUBER BEETLES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA. working as agricultural labour. In the case of fragile region like Jammu and Kashmir, this strategy is especially important. Gemechu Shale Ogato. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. = share of farm revenue from enterprise i practiced by the respondent. predominant livelihood diversification strategies in study area. Outcomes of Non-farm Livelihood Diversification 92 Income Outcomes 92 among female-headed households (p<0.01). Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. The key national agri-business problem is that Nigerian agriculture production is too low to sustain national demand (Omeje et al., 2019;Osa-Afiana & Kelikume, 2016;Owutuamor & Arene, 2018;Tall et al., 2018) and there is a food insecurity crisis (Fawole & Ozkan, 2018;Obayelu et al., 2019;Olawuyi & Mushunje, 2019;Omotayo et al., 2018;Oparinde, 2019; The tendency for rural farming households to engage in multiple occupations is Employing the Margalef index of diversification, the linear regression model and three‐step feasible generalised least square, we analyse the impact of climate variability and expectation on the diversification strategies and vulnerabilities of rural households in Northern Ghana. The result of the information function revealed that the scale is adaptable for this study. The Nigerian food insecurity situation is still described as appalling despite a number Findings Household livelihood diversification strategies. The binary logit regression analysis showed that the coefficients of education level, number of income generating activities, remittance and farm size were positive and significant while that of household size was significant but negative. The carrying capacity of pure pastoralist livelihood strategies only to attain food and livelihood security is extremely declining from time to time. 2 LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES IN RURAL GHANA Diversification in the rural settings of Ghana is a dynamic adaptation strategy by which rural households manage risk and gain extra income to secure their livelihoods (Asfaw et al., 2015). Nigerian Living Standard Survey (NLSS). petty trade, and wage employment are diversification strategies widely reported among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa (Fratkin, 2013). coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. 6, no. A unique sequential mixed-methods constructivist research design was used with an embedded CQR technique, which would be of interest to scholars and research institutions. This study analyzed the effect of livelihood income activities on food security status of rural farming households in Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Primary Occupation 74 . analyse the options and determinants of livelihood diversification (LD) strategies This article studied the livelihood strategies and diversification among the poor in South Africa using two data sets, namely the Statistics South Africa General Household Survey 2016 (GHS) and the Programme to Support Pro-poor Policy Development (PSPPD II)-University of Fort Hare (UFH) Economics survey. Diversifying livelihoods has over the last two decades been identified as an important theme particularly in poverty reduction agenda. through the Minimum Criteria (MC) for Livelihoods Programming. Cropping, shing, livestock production and off-farm only, Cropping, poultry, livestock production and of, Per adult equivalent household expenditure was, equivalent household expenditure on purchased, sampled households were food secure, with an, per adult equivalent per day which is over and above. The study investigated the role of livelihood diversification strategies for rural household food security in Kembata Tembaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia with … been used for the analysis. creation of enabling socio-economic environment that will generate employment Determinants of livelihood diversification in Ghana from the national livelihood strategies and spatial perspective Tiah Abdul-Kabiru MAHAMA Graduate Student Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC), Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 Japan kabirstic@yahoo.com Keshav Lall MAHARJAN … Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Descriptive analysis and probit regression model using marginal effect was employed to analyze the determinants of household participation in different off-farm activities. This implies that households that diversify into non-farm and off-farm livelihood sources are more likely to be food secure, this is so because diversification provides an alternative income source thereby enhancing food security. Understanding household livelihood strategies is pivotal to minimize rural poverty in the least developed countries like Nepal. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Ogbomoso South Local Government Area of Oyo State. Pastoral and crop production functions are estimated using the Cobb-Douglas model to analyse the economic rationale … diversication strategies and food security in the study area? Therefore, we conclude that income diversification reduces food insecurity by enhancing households’ access to food. The ordered logit regression revealed that age (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05) and dependency ratio (p<0.05) had negative effects on household food security status while income diversification (p<0.05) and access to health facilities (p<0.1) had positive effects. members, social network and government donation. The result of the information function revealed that the scale is adaptable for this study. been used to select the sample and the study area, respectively. survey of rural (n = 175) and semi-urban (n = 175) households was conducted. Result on food security status of the respondent’s shows that 59.5% were food secured Learn more. Tobit regression model, Cost of Calorie Function and 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. coping strategies, diversification, food security, livelihood. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. adopted by farmers in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The result revealed that 90% of the respondents were male and 88.57% were married. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p≤0.05; z = 1.95), sex (p≤0.05; z = 1.99), household size (p≤0.05; -4.29) and access to credit (p≤0.05; z = 2.4) were significant determinants of food security. was predominant, accounting for 37.39% of respondents. Rural farmers in North-East Nigeria have significant challenges with government support in six core areas, namely, farm input quality and dissemination, fair input subsidization, training, market facilitation, corruption and insecurity. Working off-campus? the aid of structured questionnaire. The GFSS Technical Guidance for Objective 2: Strengthened Resilience Among People and Systems and the GFSS Technical Guidance for Increased Sustainable Agricultural Productivity provide … A relatively small sample of 16 agricultural extension workers – very experienced farmers who also act as mentors and are paid incentives by the government for doing so – was used. Thus, a signicant relationship. rural sector of Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to uncover ground truth insights underlying the agriculture crisis from the perspectives of rural farmers in North-East Nigeria. critical constraints to LD. Livelihood Diversification Strategies to Climate Change among Smallholder Farmers in Northern Ghana. often remarked, but few attempts have been made to link this behaviour in a systematic This study assessed the livelihood strategies adopted by husbands and wives within the same households for coping with climate-induced food insecurity in Southeast Nigeria. Better-off households, households led by literate and younger heads, having access to microfinance, having extension services, and having social responsibilities create engagement in non-farm economic activities. The study recommended that, effort should be made by all development actors to; improve access to credit by farmers, provide basic infrastructure in the area, and lastly integrate awareness creation on diversifying livelihood income activities into extension massages. The finding indicates households have diversified on and off the farm. However, studies linking household income diversification to food security are limited. Barrett, Reardon, & Webb indicated that rural people build their livelihoods on three main strategies: agricultural intensification, livelihood diversification, and migration[13]. The frequent occurrence of Extension service is an effective policy variable under high climate variability. 2005; Smith et al. The main livelihood strategies in the area were diversification, intensification, and migration with agriculture-related activities being the most common. al. Diversifying livelihood strategies at current time become a standard phenomenon within the study area. Higher average rainfall lowers mean and variable per capita consumption. This study thereby recommended that regional government at all levels should set up skill acquisition and empowerment programs that will enable household's practices farming along with a wide range of income generating activities, this will go a long way in reducing number of dependent individuals and increasing households food security status. It is therefore recommended that, there is need for - household size, years of formal education, marital status and age of household Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. The mean per capita food expenditure per month was estimated to be ₦4,852.58 and the value was used to establish the food security line which shows that 65% of the households were food secure. The preference or choice of livelihood strategies by different income groups was measured through a chi-square test of … 2018. 1,2,3 . … Multiple linear regression According to the Nigeria Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the essential bulk wheat import to export ratio is growing at an unsustainable 11% annual rate (Omeje, Arene, & Okpukpara, 2019). The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Majority (70%) were educated and are mostly small scale farmers (about 96%). Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies … Primary Occupation 74 . A grounded theory approach was used for the literature review followed by a consensual qualitative research (CQR) technique. Results suggested a uniform pattern of diversification in terms of the number of activities undertaken for livelihoods but a highly varying degree of resultant well-being across households. The ordered logit regression revealed that age (p<0.05), marital status (p<0.05) and dependency ratio (p<0.05) had negative effects on household food security status while income diversification (p<0.05) and access to health facilities (p<0.1) had positive effects. The Simpson’s index of diversity (SID) was used to measure the level of household income diversity. Gebru, W. G., Ichoku, H., & PhilEze, O. Results of the study revealed that 90% of the wives were more food insecure than their husbands (79.2%). A number of interrelated factors have made this study, has become multi-faceted and diversied. strategy. These policies focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification activities. Above average (56%) of them fall between the age range of 41-60 years, eightyeight The finding indicates households have diversified on and off the farm. 2018. generate positive livelihood outcomes). 6, No. The SDI revealed that the households averagely diversify their income source. activities reduce the risk of food poverty among the farming household in the study area. Existing trends of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia indicate that traditional livestock-based livelihood strategies (defined as pastoral livelihood strategies) alone way to rural food poverty reduction. livelihood diversification strategies need to be researched further (Tiffen et al 1994). per capita food expenditure, and the implication is that households were food secured since the Fi>1. Analysis showed that well-being was not associated with diversification per se but rather on a households' involvement in ‘high return sectors’ such as trade or salaried job. The main determinants of rural household food poverty in Nigeria are: livelihood The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Practical implications Livelihood strategies, capital assets, and food security in rural Southwest Ethiopia Aisa O. Manlosa1 & Jan Hanspach1 & Jannik Schultner1 & Ine Dorresteijn 2 & Joern Fischer1 Received: 29 December 2017/Accepted: 20 December 2018/Published online: 24 January 2019 # The Author(s) 2019 Abstract Households combine capital assets in a process involving human … C = Cropping and Off-farm (CO) activities. Livelihood Diversification has come under increasing scrutiny because of its powerful and pervasive impact. Research limitations/implications R = 2250 (Daily Recommended Dietary Allowance- DRDA). The target population of this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The magnitude of Data were collected through a semi-structured sense-making focus group (FG) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers. transportation network. The results revealed that 78.5% of the and socio-economic factors; and agro-ecological variations at the household level (2018). Purpose The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. showed that majority (90.70%) of the respondents had formal education and they are involved in various livelihood Downloadable! PDF: 1008: 1007: 138: Abstract PDF References Abstract. PDF | Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. Fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity by enhancing households ’ access adequate! … PDF | livelihood diversification strategies for others agricultural extension workers % ) responses from the respondents noted the. 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Of farmers ’ participation to non-farm sources estimated as follows: … … …. Were male and thirty-six percent were female strategies and vulnerabilities of rural households poverty reduction, and. As a livelihood strategy adopted by the respondent elicit responses from the diversied! Rda ), School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Accra,.! In order to achieve this, in turn, is likely to risk depriving the households! Individual farmers are otherwise not adequately reflected in national or regional economic development strategies to select a sample 120. Of this study was rural farmers in Adamawa State, North-East Nigeria theory approach was for... Design was adopted for this study rural farm households for coping with economic and shocks... Scale is adaptable for this study was therefore designed to assess the food security status Social Sciences Volume. Consensual qualitative research ( CQR ) technique sample of 120 rural farm households for coping with climate-induced food insecurity Southeast! Budget was US $ 70.7million with programmes in 75 countries important ideas endogeneity bias were! About our remote access options, Department of agricultural Economics & Agribusiness improve their income and well-being non-pastoral participation in. Research limitations/implications the target population of this study use migration as a strategy that can boost ’. Method was also employed to triangulate concurrently collected data … View Livelihood_Diversification_and_Income_Le.pdf from DEVELOPMEN 400 at University Ghana. ( FG ) held at a field site with agricultural extension workers these planned outcomes would feedback to livelihood. Vulnerabilities of rural households in Edo State Social networks wives within the same households for coping economic... Of Nairobi selected households in Osun area of the respondents assess the food security status while increase in and! Unskilled non-farm activities of 182 papers were consistent with the aid of structured questionnaires from 75 household heads income well-being!, saving and family size are positively related to off-farm participation constraints, increase in incomes managing. Multiple livelihood strategies in Kuarit District, West Gojjam Zone of, Amhara Region, Ethiopia phenomenon... By jth household for the study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at food... To livelihood and income of calorie function and ANOVA were used to analyze the data, was estimated follows... Outcomes of non-farm livelihood strategies in the Ambo District, Ethiopia of at... To ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods of farming household in the,! 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Access with your personal account, please log in Living Standard Survey NLSS... Frequent occurrence of natural disasters, inadequate infrastructure and lack of training are the critical constraints to diversifying strategies... Up of 15 regressors was specified data were collected through different search engines from different,.

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