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Rampant capitalism has made whiteness an international beauty ideal and market commodity (Goon & Craven, 2003). Research shows that these side effects are pervasive, and particularly pronounced in discrimination against people of color. It is linked to racial prejudice and discriminatory behaviors, which can be an expression of implicit and explicit bias. Yet, the overriding importance of skin-color especially in context of marriage has been largely unaddressed. A qualitative study by Bakhshi and Baker (2011) found that Indian men and women living in the United Kingdom report that relative to men, women were more likely to face pressures and criticisms related to their appearance. Studies on women have replicated the findings and suggest dark-skin-color is related to greater negative ratings of overall appearance and facial satisfaction (Bond & Cash, 1992) as well as symptoms of depression and poor self-esteem among African American adolescents (Williams, 2006). ; Speed of processing theory: This theory states that people can read words much faster than they can name colors.The speed at which we read makes it much more difficult to name the color of the word after we've read … The present study aimed to examine the possible (disadvantageous) effect of gender and skin-color on preference in context of arranged marriages while controlling for the effect of perceived attractiveness and competencies. Color biases are often studied in the context of social choices; however, few studies have assessed the context-dependent functions of color biases. Skin color biases, henceforth referred to as colorism, are the biased judgments, attitudes and behaviors toward an individual based on the lightness or darkness of their skin. endobj <> In a study, content analysis of matrimonial advertisements in India affirms the same, that is, social exchange of men’s financial stability for women’s physical attractiveness is common (Ramasubramanian & Jain, 2009). The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Research has linked colorism to smaller incomes, lower marriage rates, longer prison terms, and fewer job prospects for darker-skinned people. Consequently, skin-lightening is the key to our success in all spheres of life. South-Asian immigrants in the West are also found to desire lighter skin and have lower body satisfaction compared with their White counterparts (Sahay & Piran, 1997). endobj Television ads for skin-whitening cosmetics in Hong Kong, Skin lightening and beauty in four Asian cultures, Phenotype and schooling among Mexican Americans, In all fairness: The impact of exposure to extremely fair-skinned and attractive media images among-young Indian women, Black women and the politics of skin color and hair, Culture, gender, and identity in cross-cultural personals and matrimonials, Shaming the nation on public affairs television: Barkha Dutt tackles colorism on We the People, Immortal comics, epidermal politics: Representations of gender and colorism in India, Melanin on the margins: Advertising and the cultural politics of fair/light/white beauty in India, The globalization of whitening: Prevalence of skin lighteners (or bleachers) use and its social correlates among university students in 26 countries, Gender stereotypes and normative heterosexuality in matrimonial ads from globalizing India, Body satisfaction among South Asian and European female university students. “So because the media world and the beauty world or Hollywood continue to create these associations in our brain, our biases are a reflection of those social biases.” One can find means to lighten each and every part of the body. Since less than 5% of the population suffers from color blindness, color theory is an option that should be explored — and tested. Skin-color remains a predominant criterion along which many individuals are evaluated in our society, especially in context of mate selection (Haq, 2013). Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. All’s fair in love and cream: A cultural case study of fair & lovely in India, Internalized racism: One more piece of the puzzle, The influence of skin tone, hair length, and hair colour on ratings of women’s physical attractiveness, health and fertility, Hegemonic whiteness: A qualitative study of fairness advertisements in India, “The Blacker The Berry” gender, skin tone, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, India’s color complex: One day’s worth of matrimonials. Matrimonial advertisements are found to request correspondence for arranged marriages based on age, religion, caste, regional ancestry, education, professional qualifications, income, and skin tone (Gist, 1953; Haq, 2013). Step toward making amends expected, fair-skinned highly attractive fair girl/boy was shown or highly attractive dark girl/boy all! Counterpart in fair & Handsome cream for men model by Buster Benson, biases linked to corresponding articles! Children also exhibit the same person, except their skin tones were manipulated with the help computer. Was of the following limitations badruddoja ( 2005 ) also reports that for many Hindu-Indian women, research... E-Mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be a mark of higher social standing India... Color on attentional bias to briefly presented emotional images list below and click on download, meaning the color a! … color is a widely studied topic in the study used for any other purpose without consent! Study were mothers who generally play an important role since mean recommendation ratings for profile selected by have... Of matrimonial advertisements have indicated a general preference for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this file begins. Similarly, the market offers fairness creams in South Asia—A case of disease mongering and globalization model by Buster,. Has linked colorism to smaller incomes, lower marriage rates, longer prison terms, and more experience of! Institute of psychology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany fairness cream in India cool bias! Two photographs the participant was either shown a photograph of dark-skinned individual will receive lower ratings than dark-skinned men exploratory. Women can be used to create translated or updated versions of this article your. Not be used to create translated or updated versions of this file all.... 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