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Depreciation and amortization total \$100,000. If the margin property has two values: margin: 10px 5px; top and bottom margins are 10px; right and left margins are 5px; If the margin property has one value: margin: 10px; all four margins are 10px; Note: Negative values are allowed. LMN company declared a net profit, before taxes and interest, of \$3M for year-end 2015. Usage margin.table(x, margin) Arguments. The gross margin reveals the amount that a business earns from the sale of its products and services, before the deduction of any selling and administrative expenses . Base R does have a function called mode(), but it’s for something much different. This is really just apply(x,margin,sum) packaged up for newbies. 1 decade ago. The figure can vary dramatically by . Edit: This post originally appeared on my WordPress blog on September 20, 2009. So 1 stands for rows and 2 for columns. If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the “correct” dimension. Sometimes it's used when a simpler function would have sufficed (e.g., apply), other times, it's impossible to know exactly what it's is doing without spending a fair amount of time to step through the code block it's in. argument. Gross margin is a company’s net sales minus its cost of goods sold . Adam J. Lv 6. If your account falls below the maintenance margin… Gm is the amount of gain variance required to make the loop gain unity at the frequency Wcg where the phase angle is –180° (modulo 360°). To learn more, launch our online finance courses now! All possible values for margin? Therefore, a high ratio can result from: Efficient management; Low costs (expenses) Strong pricing strategies . The Apply family comprises: apply, lapply , sapply, vapply, mapply, rapply, and tapply. To apply a predefined margin, select Layout > Margins and choose the predefined margin you want to use. margin: vector of dimensions over which to form margins. Apply for option trading with this account. Relevance. Favorite Answer. Using apply in R. We start with the godfather of the family, apply, which operates on arrays (for simplicity we limit here to 2D arrays, aka, matrices). CSS Margins. For example, par(mar=c(5.1,4.1,4.1,2.1) sets the bottom, left, top and right margins respectively of the plot region in number of lines of text. There isn’t a function in R to do this automatically, so I can create my own function. I am printing the matrix below so that it is easy to visually compare with apply and sweep later on: > m [,1] [,2] [1,] 1 4 [2,] 2 5 [3,] 3 6 Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. How to change font size of text and axes on R plots. What if instead, I wanted to find n-1 for each column? x: an array: margin: index number (1 for rows, etc.) Buying on margin means you are investing with borrowed money. Similarly, the phase margin is the difference between the phase of the response and –180° when the loop gain is 1.0. It is calculated by dividing the operating profit by total revenue and expressing as a percentage. If n is 0, the result has length 0 but not necessarily the ‘correct’ dimension. Because we are using columns, MARGIN = 2. apply(my.matrx, 2, length) ##  10 10 10. Net sales reported in the income statement shows an amount of \$5M. It is fairly straightforward to set the margins of a graph in R by calling the par() function with the mar (for margin!) FUN: list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length dim(x)[MARGIN].. See Also. After you determine the cost of a product, you can subtract this from the sales price to get the net profit. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. 8 Answers. Expressed as a percentage, profit margin … FUN. Answer Save. Margin Calls A margin call occurs when the investments in the account and the cash decrease in value and fall below the minimum maintenance margin amount. The apply function in R is used as a fast and simple alternative to loops. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. Default value: 0: Inherited: no: Animatable: yes, see individual properties. A high net profit margin means that a company is able to effectively control its costs and/or provide goods or services at a price significantly higher than its costs. The initial margin requirement is set by federal law and varies from product to product. If the calls to FUN return vectors of different lengths, apply returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN]) with dim set to MARGIN if this has length greater than one. I have been confused with sweep many times in the past but I think you are confused with apply.. The margins are numbered the same way as in the apply() function. … The horizontal ruler displayed below the Word menu provides another way to change the margins in your document. yes/no. If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(X)[MARGIN] otherwise. Value. what does this mean? In the length-1 case, can be a function instead of a list of one. But why? (On the Packages tab, select Install, and then in the Install dialog box, type modeest in the Packages box and click Install. How to calculate proportions . The CSS margin properties are used to create space around elements, outside of any defined borders.. With CSS, you have full control over the margins. When I look at the source of R Packages, i see the function sweep used quite often. Profit margin gauges the degree to which a company or a business activity makes money, essentially by dividing income by revenues. … Instead, you need a package called modeest in your library. R tapply, lapply, sapply, apply, mapply functions usage. Margin: Allows you to borrow money from your broker to invest with the money you place into your account as collateral. AccountingTools . After the initial transaction, maintenance rules set by the self-regulatory organizations, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASD, apply. These functions allow crossing the data in a number of ways and avoid explicit use of loop constructs. list of the same length as margin, each element of the list being either a function or a list of functions. –function is the function you want to apply to the elements of your variable. margin.table {base} R Documentation: Compute table margin Description. Any possible(*) combination of the dimensions of 'x' in apply(x, margin, function) (*) non-null. MARGIN: We want to apply the operation by row. Apply for margin within this account. For example, to buy stock on margin, you must have at least 50% of the purchase price in your account. yes/no. Gross margin is a company's net sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold (COGS). The … There are properties for setting the margin for each side of an element (top, right, bottom, and left). Names of the list elements will appear as levels in dimnames of the result. The R Function of the Day series will focus on describing in plain language how certain R functions work, focusing on simple examples that you can apply to gain insight into your own data.. Today, I will discuss the tapply function. Let’s go through the code step by step: x: Our example matrix, which is called data. The apply() Family. Sales margin is calculated the same way that gross profit margin, also known as margin, is. margin. INDEX. The default value is 1. Margins are formed in the order in which dimensions are specified in margin. It allows users to apply a function to a vector or data frame by row, by column or to the entire data frame. Keywords iteration, category. In other words, the gain margin is 1/g if g is the gain at the –180° phase frequency. Table 2: Example Matrix After Simple Application of sweep in R. As you can see, all zeros where replaced by 5. EBITDA Margin = EBITDA / Net Sales . If the function is simple, you can create it right inside the arguments for apply. Dividing that net profit by the sales price gives you the sales margin as a percentage. R apply Functions. The MARGIN argument means exactly the same thing in both functions and that is row-wise operation. To add the column margin, you need to set margin to 2, but this column margin contains the row totals. The relevant marginal table. The Family of Apply functions pertains to the R base package, and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and data frames in a repetitive way.Apply Function in R are designed to avoid explicit use of loop constructs. Rui Barradas Hello, 2L is an integer, 2 might be or not. There are other functions in the apply family (sapply, mapply, rollapply, etc.) Example Calculation. To change the font size of text elements, use cex (short for character expansion ratio). Margin can be even greater than 2, if we work with variables of dimension greater than two. The apply() family pertains to the R base package and is populated with functions to manipulate slices of data from matrices, arrays, lists and dataframes in a repetitive way. I present it here in its original form. apply() function applies a function to margins of an array or matrix. Typically vector-like, allowing subsetting with [. Details. Margin is the money borrowed from a broker to purchase an investment and is the difference between the total value of investment and the loan amount. To reduce the text size, use a cex value of less than 1; to increase the text size, use a cex value greater than 1. Therefore, we set MARGIN = 1. Use the Ruler to Adjust Margins in Word . In Word Online, Word 2010 and Word 2007, the Layout tab is labeled as Page Layout. Similar functions include lapply(), sapply(), mapply() and tapply().These functions are more efficient than loops when handling data in batch. If each call to FUN returns a vector of length n, then apply returns an array of dimension c(n,dim(x)[MARGIN]) if n > 1.If n equals 1, apply returns a vector if MARGIN has length 1 and an array of dimension dim(x)[MARGIN] otherwise.. Usage tapply(X, INDEX, FUN = NULL, …, default = NA, simplify = TRUE) Arguments X. an R object for which a split method exists. The margin argument takes a number or a vector of numbers, but it can be a bit confusing. The steps to change margins remain the same. vector of dimensions over which to form margins. –margin specifies if you want to apply by row (margin = 1), by column (margin = 2), or for each element (margin = 1:2). In the case of apply(), there is no difference. Value. Buying on margin amplifies both gains and losses. Below are a few basic uses of this powerful function as well as one of it’s sister functions lapply. Operating Profit Margin is a profitability or performance ratio that reflects the percentage of profit a company produces from its operations, prior to subtracting taxes and interest charges. Compute the sum of table entries over a given index. Apply a function to each cell of a ragged array, that is to each (non-empty) group of values given by a unique combination of the levels of certain factors. 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