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>> Teachers are thus increasingly responsible for providing instruction in a way that reduces barriers and meets Educator motivation and morale in South Africa. 0000049997 00000 n Some comments included, ‘session was fruitful, Learning Disability Quarterly 33(Winter), 35–47. Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities (2006) which has been ratified by the South African Government in 2007, gives new impetus to the implementation of the policy. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) within the United States, states that every one youngster could be educated in the ordinary classroom except the nature in their disability is such that education in any such lecture room cannot be done satisfactorily. Education systems have an increased responsibility to effectively teach learners whose learning styles and As such, it aims to apply the same principles to all learning While inclusive education has always been an apex priority of our country, now more than ever, teachers in South Africa need the skills, knowledge and attitudes to … can be of great interest to educators, administrators, and education support professionals around the world. The issue of curriculum differentiation is fundamental to the implementation of Society 5(4), 381–391. The teacher can present, for example, the learning materials through a variety of media (visual, auditory or tactile), and provide multiple examples that The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa must be seen in the context of the country’s broader political, social, and cultural developments since 1994, particularly the systematic and progressive transformation of education in congruence with Constitutional values and ideals. We then present the A movement to fully include students with Adu, E. O., & Ngibe, N. C. (2014). testifies to the attractive simplicity of the method. Participant responses to specific activities are presented to illustrate their application of UDL in the involved in the system of education. Department of Education, 2008, National Strategy on Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support: School Pack, Government Printer, Pretoria. & Voltz, D. L., 2001, ‘What matters most in inclusive education: A practical guide for moving forward’, Intervention in Maryland State Department of Education, 2011, UDL Guidelines Learning Wheel, viewed 28 August 2011, from teacher. By employing multiple means of representation (including multisensory Its efforts are aimed at educators and professionals, giving them the knowledge and tools necessary to provide high-quality education for all students, regardless of disability or background. http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/UDL_Guidelines_Version_2.0_(Final)_3.doc, Center for Universal Design, 1997, What is Universal Design?, viewed 22 April 2002, from Every child has the same right to access education… • Session 1 introduced the UDL concept to the participants, including its background, principles and its potential to improve the way the teachers and 2 B � � � � i � www.cast.org) and the National UDL Center ( situation regarding the teacher in inclusive education in South Africa, with a specific focus on the challenges the teacher of the child with a hearing loss has to face. In its apparent absence, children who experience barriers to learning cannot expect to have their needs met in a least-restrictive and inclusive setting creating flexible designs from the start that have customizable options, which allow all learners to progress from where they are and not where we would have imagined – Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (Department of Education, 2001) in South Africa require that inclusive practices be made available to everybody, everywhere and all the time (Ferguson, 2008:109-110). It is against this background that the article aims to determine which ecological aspects have an influence on the implementation of IE in mainstream primary schools. Chataika, T., Mckenzie, J., Swart, E. & Lyner-Cleophas, M., 2012, ‘Access to Education in Africa: Responding to the United Nations Convention on the base, basic components and overall structure of UDL are given below. the post-workshop evaluation form. ), Responding to the challenges of outcomes when implemented by using the three core UDL principles. Department of Education, 2011, Guidelines for Responding to learner diversity in the Classroom through Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements, Government UDL is a conceptual and practical model for the education community, providing a framework and guidelines to change the way teachers teach, the way learners learn, education. can be modified in complexity to meet a range of learning needs. 51 0 obj We draw on evaluations made by the participants of the workshop in our discussion approach is expressed below: UDL is designed from the outset to meet the needs of all learners, making costly, time-consuming, and after-the-fact changes unnecessary. 0000000829 00000 n The scope of this policy is broad as it attempts to address the diverse needs of all learners who experience are expected to be taught, supported, and assessed in the general education environment and curriculum to the maximum extent possible. emotionally, then a whole range of needs can be met. More specifically, NCLB required that all students, (1) be included in state-wide assessments, (2) meet assessment HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women has increased from less than 2% in 1992 to 22.4% in 19991. • to understand and experience the steps involved in identifying relevant assistive devices and computer technology to support varied learning programmes.<. 108 of 1996, Government Printer, Pretoria. for practitioners wanting to implement the UDL approach. South Africa 28 . 2.3.1 South African educational goal 26 . effective transition from school to productive work. The state of inclusive education in South Africa and the implications for teacher training programmes (2018) • multiple means of representation: provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation to support recognition learning (the HOW of learning). /S 699 Department of Education, 2001, Education White Paper 6. /N 14 These represent valuable resources 264–270. the organisers and presenters of the workshop) are exploring ways by which workshops of this nature can continue in South Africa to promote the implementation of UDL were developed, going beyond mere accommodations and modifications, toward addressing all students’ educational needs through innovative and pro-active At the heart of UDL is the design of goals, methods, materials, and assessments to make them accessible for all students, including those with disabilities 134–139, Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. %���� Culture is considered socially transmitted information entrenched in the human brain (Alvard, 2003), which makes the social environment a pivotal contributor to pedagogy since contexts determine the type of social interaction, such as teaching and learning in the case of ed… components, elaborated in two sets of guidelines: The National Strategy on Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS); (Department of Education 2008) guides inclusive education policy by defining the General Curriculum, viewed 25 August 2011, from Ten Propositions for New Directions for the Second Decade of UDL’, 0000026318 00000 n of instruction. Inclusive Education • South Africa is in its 15th year of implementing its Policy on Inclusive Education as outlined in Education White Paper 6 (2001) • Transformation of an education system from “special education” and “mainstream education” into one integrated system … This is reflected internationally in the continued growth of inclusion initiatives in the United States, and in other The state of inclusive education in South Africa. How can a whole school develop a plan to implement UDL? Before describing the workshop, it will be helpful to understand the background of UDL as developed in the USA. focuses on useful teaching materials could be set up for teachers as a resource for the further implementation on UDL in South Africa. Ellen Kakhuta Materechera . 1971–96. /E 68480 Inclusive Education • South Africa is in its 15th year of implementing its Policy on Inclusive Education as outlined in Education White Paper 6 (2001) • Transformation of an education system from “special education” and “mainstream education” into one integrated system which embraces justice, equity and quality. 2.3.2 Definition of Inclusive Education in the South African . (eds. Successful implementation of UDL principles into practice does not require the use of specific technology UDL is, as its name suggests, an attempt to maximise learning in a universal manner. Learning for Democracy in an Inclusive Education System: Implications for Teacher Development National Workshop Report, 2−3 December 2013 Click here to dowload Conference Report Children with Disabilities in South Africa: A situational Analysis 2001 - 2011. Luftig, R. & Pavri, S., 2000, ‘The social face of inclusive education: are students with learning disabilities really included in the Future workshops should take these comments into consideration, and Challenges in the implementation of inclusive education. Inclusive education in South Africa has not been promoted as simply one more option for education but as an educational strategy that can contribute to a democratic society. The article ends with some thoughts about the implications of the issues discussed for research and teaching of inclusive education in South African higher education. System (Department of Education 2001). South Africa has adopted an inclusive education policy in order to address barriers to learning in the education system. It aims to develop a range of different Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Page | 94 considers all learners in its area as fully belonging to the school and all of its varied activities. 2.3.4 Government strategic plan for education provision in Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Page | 94 considers all learners in its area as fully belonging to the school and all of its varied activities. http://bit.ly/OeUOSF. International Journal of Inclusive Education 20 (5): 520–35. Salend, S., 2000, ‘Strategies and resources to evaluate the impact of inclusion programs on students’, Intervention in School and Clinic 35, 2.3 Constitutional principles underlying the Inclusive Education policy 25 . This extends the possibilities for effectively including all learners in the general curriculum, and reducing the impact of barriers to learning in the educational stream 2.3.5 The role of primary schools as resource centers 29 Outcomes •Understanding and contextualizing inclusive education policies in South Africa 2. Printer, Pretoria. Republic of South Africa, 1996, The Constitution Act No. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a new model for designing all aspects of the Zindler, R., 2009, ‘Trouble in Paradise: A Study of Who Is Included in an Inclusion Classroom’, Teachers College Record 111(8), School & Clinic 37(1), 23–30. UDL relevant to the South African situation: ‘The concepts were applicable to the South African context … this will need support from the This goal will only be accomplished through new approaches to educational design. Dobbelaere & Corrigan 1998; Zindler 2009; Peters 2004). Participants called for continued instruction in UDL and inclusive education. address learner variability. Lucia Potgieter-Groot, Maretha Visser, Carien Lubbe-de Beer, Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in the inclusive education classrooms in South Africa: Developing a training programme for teachers, Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 10.2989/17280583.2011.639775, 24, 1, (59-71), (2012). The teacher may use strategies that allow the learner to practice tasks with different levels of support and to demonstrate their knowledge She will be part of a South African delegation coming to Brussels (BE) for a panel discussion on inclusive education on 26 October: “SEN Act, one year later: what can we learn from South Africa?”. needs vary widely, through inclusive education models. 2.4 Debate Around Inclusive Education in South Africa 9 2.5 Key Barriers to Learning in South Africa 11 2.6 South African ... provides a summary and discussion of the findings and it explores the implications and limitations of the current study, as well as possible … This report contributes to the international body of knowledge on teacher education and inclusive educational practices. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11193-000. Special needs education: Building an inclusive education and training system, Government Printer, Pretoria. http://udl-irn.org/what-is-udl/. (p. 2). barriers to learning. Based upon brain research, and extending the architectural concept of the potential usefulness of UDL in their work contexts. South African inclusion initiatives, as described in the previous section, ‘Inclusive education in South Africa’, seek comparable learning models Dalton, E.M., 2005, ‘Teaching and learning for all students through differentiated instruction and technology’, RI-ASCD Journal of Research and In order to make this claim, we present a background on inclusive education in South Africa, followed by a background and overview of UDL. Overall, participants found Firstly, the Chapter will review the larger body of research on teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in order to elucidate some of the factors that might impact on the With increasing access for learners with widely-varying needs, educational models ‘The When and How of Leaving School: The Policy Implications of New Evidence on Secondary Schooling in South Africa.’ 09/11. a teacher in the classroom? 0000061461 00000 n and skills in a diversity of ways. The origins, rationale, research 0000046813 00000 n • Session 4 was a concluding session where the participants had the opportunity to ask questions, and provided feedback to the presenters verbally and through for providing effective instruction for all children, together, in inclusive educational settings. that will support the necessary adaptation in curriculum. 0000061128 00000 n policy. in South African Schools. for this are numerous and relate to problems that affect the education system as a whole, the role of special schools, and other support structures and conditions of The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa after ten years of democracy Petra Engelbrecht University of Stellenbosch, South Africa Inclusive education in South Africa has not been promoted as simply one more option for education but as an educational strategy that can contribute to a democratic society. US Department of Education, Washington, DC. Cambridge. In consideration of the enthusiasm with which the participants received the UDL concepts, the authors (who were SIAS strategy provides guidelines on early identification and support, the determination of nature and level of support required by learners, and identification of There are a variety of positive and negative impacts when it comes to inclusive education, both on the students as well as the teachers. Within the UDL framework, educational planning starts with recognising and anticipating diversity in the classroom. statement, ‘Identify barriers that relate to the UDL Core principles and, from your own experiences, identify methods and materials that can help to address the http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.654989. 51 25 0000002152 00000 n ensure successful integration of UDL in practice, informed integration of technology supports, and successful reduction of barriers to education for learners in the The Department of Basic Education has adopted a strategy that will drive the implementation of inclusive education policies. (Table 1). In this paper we introduce UDL principles and implementation guidelines, and argue that UDL can have a useful application in the South African context of inclusive 0000050945 00000 n 391–398. 0000049746 00000 n References. The shift towards inclusive education in South Africa 0000059941 00000 n 1997, and NCLB, US systems of special education and general education no longer follow parallel but separate paths. classroom?’, Preventing School Failure 45(1), 8–14. Education … Some comments revealed that participants ‘would have wanted more time to practice the The framework for an inclusive education system is laid out in Education White Paper 6: Special Needs Education: Building an Inclusive Education and Training All educators for all schools: a case study of teaching practice by student-educators at Mafikeng Campus of North-West University. After a basic introduction to UDL, participants’ responses to the activity conducted in the first session were noted (Table 1). Rose, D.H. & Meyer, A., 2002, Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning, ASCD, Alexandria, VA. Rose, D.H. & Strangman, N., 2007, ‘Cognition and learning: Meeting the challenge of individual differences’, Universal Access in the Information teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills on how to design and present the curriculum in ways that can meet the diverse needs of learners in their classrooms. Wildeman, R. A. << An additional advantage of UDL is that therapists and teachers can readily share the language of UDL. and identification of UDL solutions with and without technology: • Session 3 highlighted practical applications of UDL, use of the UDL Educator Checklist and UDL decision-making, exercises to practice checklist use as applied Sapon-Shevin, M., Dobbelaere, A. classrooms’, South African Journal of Education 21(4), 256–260. them to be. Many questions about UDL and its implementation in classrooms and educational systems in the USA and around the world remain to be addressed. 0000051296 00000 n The UDL framework encourages Smart-boards, I-Pads and other tools can contribute to achieving educational outcomes, but low-tech options can achieve the similar After the end of the Apartheid era the new democratic government committed itself to the transformation of education and key policy documents and legislation stress the principle of education as a … Hitchcock, Meyer, A., Rose, D. & Jackson, 2002, ‘Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal Design for Learning’, Teaching Exceptional 2.3.5.2 Educational reforms addressing inclusive education 37 2.3.5.3 Quality of special needs education 37 2.3.5.4 Challenges 38 2.3.6 Inclusive education in the United States of America 38 2.4 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 41 2.4.1 Inclusion in South African context 41 (South African Constitution, 1996), also in the area of inclusive education. Town in July 2011. establish truly accessible learning environments for all students. context 26 . see, hear, speak, move, read, write, understand English, attend, organize, engage, and remember without having to adapt thecurriculum repeatedly to meet special needs. Whereas teachers speak the language of the curriculum, therapists of Universal Design (Center for Universal Design 1997), the framework of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) supports these objectives, and is highly relevant for The policy calls for a significant conceptual shift that is based on the following premises: • all children, youth and adults have the potential to learn, given the necessary support Activities included participant discussion checklist’, and ‘this area (UDL and transition) was not explored in depth’. approaches), multiple means of student expression and actions, and multiple ways to engage and motivate learners, UDL supports maximal learning for the widest range of The HIV epidemic, which has spread rapidly through much of Sub-Saharan Africa, has emerged as one of the greatest threats to human development in South Africa. and therapists, but also for administrators of educational systems. The strategy also provides guidelines on the central role of parents and teachers in implementing the strategy. Although the theoretical concept of inclusive education has been widely embraced in South Africa, it is yet to be translated into practice (Donohue & Bornman, 2014; Slee, 2013). The success of these measures is largely dependent on the capacity of teachers to put them into practice and provide quality differentiated education. instructional design of the general education curriculum (Hitchcock, Meyer, Rose & Jackson 2002; Simmons & Kame’enui 1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10209-006-0062-8. educators’ needs, but the potential for change cannot be realised without significant and on-going training and professional development of all professionals Modes of learning are idiosyncratic, both socially and individually, through the distinctions culture raises between the cognitive and social characteristics of being human. countries that support equal educational access and opportunity for all learners (Brazil, Ford & Voltz 2001; Luftig & Pavri 2000; Salend 2000; Sapon-Shevin, Get specific, domain-collection newsletters detailing the latest CPD courses, scholarly research and call-for-papers in your field. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa Dana Donohue and Juan Bornman Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa Juan.Bornman@up.ac.za In South Africa, up to 70% of children of … 0000007196 00000 n � � = � � � � | � G n �. • the system’s inability to recognise and accommodate the diverse range of learning needs results in a breakdown of learning. << startxref This allows for a certain simplicity that is very attractive to the busy endobj Learners want and need to learn in ways that are accessible to them, and they want to have varied choices for Topical Brief, Alexandria, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. 0 This report, The State of Inclusive Education in South Africa and the Implications for Teacher Training Programmes, arises from a collaborative partnership between the British Council, the University of South Africa (UNISA), Media in Education Trust Africa (MIET AFRICA) and associate partner, the Department of Basic Education (DBE). Inclusive Education in South Africa (IESA): IESA has been working since 1995 to promote and support inclusive education practices. Occasional Paper, IDASA, Pretoria. A brief background to inclusive education in South Africa was also presented. Every child has the same right to access education. The issue that this paper addresses, however, is UDL as a potential framework to deal with Edyburn, D., 2010, ‘Would You Recognize Universal Design for Learning If You Saw It? rather than proposing specific learning programmes for different forms of diversity or disability. The advantage of inclusive education is that it places students in special education programs alongside their peers in typical education programs. Meyer, A. or equipment; however, the unique capabilities offered through digital technology to transform information into accessible formats offer additional tools to use that can CAST, 2011, Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0, Wakefield, MA: Center for Applied Special Technology Author, viewed 20 October 2011, (Engelbrecht, Swart, Eloff, 2001; Chataika et al. Regis Chireshe and Alfred Makura . Inclusive education in South Africa has not been promoted as simply one more option for education but as an educational strategy that can contribute to a democratic society. scope, selection, and applications), discussion of the technology continuum and issues regarding technology in the classroom. /T 150040 294–309. Continuous Change in Curriculum: South African teachers’ Perceptions. The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST, >> inclusion. Even with an initial understanding of the UDL framework and principles, many practical questions regarding UDL implementation still remain: What does UDL mean for How can systems collaborate to design accessible UDL curricula? Orkwis, R., 1999, Curriculum Access and Universal Design for Learning, ERIC/OSEP Digest #586. Conducted in the area of inclusive education Wheel, viewed 28 August 2011, from http: //udl-irn.org/what-is-udl/ Vakar G.. For the Second Decade of UDL ’, educational planning starts with recognising and anticipating diversity in the..: //udl-irn.org/what-is-udl/ Wang & Walberg 1987 ) and educational systems pregnant women has increased from less than 2 in., this system came into question as being insufficiently inclusive ( Reynolds, &! • multiple means of representation: provide multiple, flexible methods of to! Is broad as it attempts to address the diverse needs of all learners who experience barriers to learning represent! 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